Education in the Philippines evolved from early settlers to the present. Education in the country is in great importance because it is the primary avenue for upward social and economic mobility. Philippine educational system has a very deep history from the past in which it has undergone several stage of development going to the present system of education.
Education from Ancient Early Filipinos
The education of pre-Spanish time in the Philippines was informal and unstructured. The fathers taught their sons how to look for food and other means of livelihood. The mothers taught their girls to do the household chores. This education basically prepared their children to became good husband and wives.
Early Filipino ancestors valued education very much. Filipino men and women knows how to read and write using their own native alphabet called alibata. The alibata was composed of 17 symbols representing the letters of the alphabet. Among these seventeen symbols were three vowels and fourteen consonants.
Educational System During Spanish Period
The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish times was formal. The Religious congregations paved the way in establishing schools from the primary level to the tertiary level of education. The schools focused on the Christian Doctrines. There was a separate school for boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were accommodated in the schools. Colonial education brought more non-beneficial effects to the Filipinos.
Educational Decree 1863
The first educational system for students in the country was established by virtue of the Education Decree of 1863. In furtherance, the decree required the government to provide school institutions for boys and girls in every town. As a consequence, the Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students. It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos emerged. The Normal School was also established which gave men the opportunity to study a three-year teacher education for the primary level.
* Education during the Spanish Regime and Its Colonial Effects to the Filipinos
Educational System During American Period
Like the Spaniards, the Americans brought many changes in their 45 years of reign in the country. Until now, these American influences can still be seen in our lifestyle or way of life.
The Commonwealth provided free education in public schools all over the country, in accordance with the 1935 constitution. Education also emphasized nationalism so the students were taught about the life of the Filipino heroes. Vocational education and some household activities like sewing, cooking, and farming were also given importance. Good manners and discipline were also taught to the students. The institute of Private Education was established in order to observe private schools. In 1941, the total number of students studying in the 400 private schools in the country reached 10,000. There was also the existence of “Adult Education” in order to give formal education even to adults.
* American government gave importance to Education
Changes in Education During the Japanese Occupation
The government made some changes in the system of education in February, 1942. These changes were:
To stop depending on western countries like the U.S., and Great Britain. Promote and enrich the Filipino culture.
To recognize that the Philippines is a part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations.
To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos.
To learn and adopt Nippongo and to stop using the English language.
To spread elementary and vocational education.
To develop love for work.
Educational System in the Present Period
Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government). The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery, kindergarten and preparatory) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by four years of secondary education.
College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years. Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the semestral calendar from June-October and November-March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs similar to those of the mother country. An overall literacy rate was estimated at 95.9 percent for the total population in 2003, 96 % for males and 95.8 % for females.